PED Projects and Grants
Research Grants
No. 
Title of research 
Principle Researcher 
Graduate Research Assistant 
Total Allocation (RM) 
Project Code / No 

1 
A New Formulation of Switching Algorithm for Reliable Neutral  Point Potential Balancing and High  Efficiency Multilevel Inverters 
Atikah binti Razi 
 
11,650 
FRGS / 1 / 2014 / TK03 / FKE / 03 / F00225 
2 
A New Technique of PMSM Sensorless Vector Control through High Frequency Injection for Zero and Low Speed Application 
Siti Azura binti Ahmad Tarusan 
 
122,000 
FRGS / 2 / 2014 / TK03 / UTEM / 03 / 2 / F00239 
3 
Optimal Harmonic Elimination Pulse  width Modulation Strategies For Voltage Source Inverter 
Jurifa binti Mat Lazi 
 
18,900 
PJP / 2014 / FKE(2A) / S01307 
4 
A Selective Harmonic Elimination Technique for Cascaded H  Bridge Multilevel Inverter 
Wahidah binti Abd Halim 
 
20,000 
PJP / 2014 / FKE(3B) / S01308 
5 
Independent Control Scheme for Sub  Bearing Permanent Magnet AC Motor Drive 
Dr. Kasrul Abd Karim 
 
74,100 
FRGS / 2 / 2013 / TK02 / FKE / 02 / 2 / F00168 
6 
A Novel Optimal Switching Strategy for Direct Torque Control of Induction Machines utilizing Multilevel Inverter 
Dr. Auzani bin Jidin 
Muhd Khairi Bin Abd Rahim, Muhd Zharif Rifqi Bin Zuber Ahmadi, Sundram a / l Ramahlingam 
138,560 
FRGS / 2013 / FKE / TK02 / 02 / 1 / F00159 
7 
Effective Regenerative Braking Control Strategies coupled with Ultra Capacitor for Electric Vehicle Application 
Syahar Azalia binti Ab. Shukor 
Wan Ahmas Redhauddin Wan Hassan 
21,650 
PJP / 2013 / FKE(10C) / S01187 
8 
A Novel Switching Strategy for Torque Ripple Reduction and High Reliability of Direct Torque Control of Brushless DC Motor 
Azrita binti Alias 
Nur Hazwani Binti Mohd Fadzil, Adeline Lukar Herlino 
18,220 
PJP / 2013 / FKE(22B) / S01241 
9 
A Neutral  Point Potential Balancing and High  Efficiency Control Strategy using Space Vector Modulation for 3  Level Inverters 
Atikah binti Razi 
Nor Faezah binti Alias 
18,000 
PJP / 2013 / FKE(2B) / S01132 
10 
Prototype Development of Photovoltaic Energy Optimized to Maximize the Output Power Suring Partial Shading for BIPV Application 
Mohd Zulkifli bin Ramli 
 
20,000 
PJP / 2013 / FKE / PROTOTAIP / S01282 
11 
Prototype Development of High Reliability of Direct Torque Control of Brushless DC Motor Drive for EV Application 
Ir Dr. Md Nazri bin Othman 
 
20,000 
PJP / 2013 / FKE / PROTOTAIP / S01285 
12 
High torque Performance of Direct Torque Control (DTC) of 5  Phase Induction Machine using Hybrid Control Strategy 
Dr. Auzani bin Jidin 
Logan Raj Lourdes Victor Raj 
80,000 
ERGS / 2012 / FKE / TK02 / 02 / 2 / E00010 
13 
Exploration of Compact Multi  Phase PWM Current Source Inverter with High Power and Highly Efficient 
Eng. Mohamed Azmi bin Said 
 
50,000 
ERGS / 2012 / FKE / TK02 / 3 / E00011 
14 
Design and Development of Integrated PV  Converter System for Under Partial Shading Condition 
Mohd Zulkifli bin Ramli 
 
29,500 
PJP / 2012 / FKE(3C) / S01004 
15 
An Optimized Switching Strategy of Direct Torque Control with 5  Level Cascaded H  Bridge Multilevel Inverter for Induction Machines 
Ir Dr. Md Nazri bin Othman 
Syamim Bt Sanusi 
16,000 
PJP / 2012 / FKE(9C) / S01108 
16 
A Novel Direct Torque Control Scheme for High Torque Performance Three  Phase Induction Machine Drive 
Dr. Auzani bin Jidin 
Ahmad Faiz Noor Azam, Raja Nor Azrin Bin Raja Yunus 
20,000 
PJP / 2011 / FKE(2C) / S00820 
17 
High Performance Torque Control of Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications 
Norhazilina binti Bahari 
 
19,000 
PJP / 2011 / FKE(3C) / S00821 
Research Projects
No. 
Title of research 
Researcher 
Supervisor 
Project Code 
Description 


1 
A dual mode DTC of open  end winding induction motor drive with reduced torque ripple 
Muhd Khairi Bin Abdul Rahim 
Dr. Auzani Bin Jidin 
FRGS / 2013 / FKE / TK02 / 02 / 1 / F00159 
This research project formulates an optimal switching strategy to minimize torque ripple and switching frequency for Direct Torque Control of induction machines. In this proposed method, two inverters are connected to the terminals of openend windings of an induction machine. By doing so, number of voltage vectors is greater same as available in threelevel multilevel inverters. The most optimal voltage vectors will be used to improve DTC performances, i.e. reduced torque ripple and switching frequency. The identification of the vectors are based on operating conditions, specifically by examining the behaviours of torque error and switching frequency of error status produced from the hysteresis controllers. It can be shown that, the proposed optimal switching vectors according to the operating conditions can reduce the rate of change of torque and hence minimize torque ripple and switching frequency. The improvements offered in the proposed method were verified through experimental results. 

Experimental Set  up


Experiment Results


2 
An Optimal Switching Strategy for High  Efficiency and Reduced Torque Ripple of Induction Motor utilizing Multilevel Inverter 
Muhd Zharif Rifqi Bin Zuber Ahmadi 
Dr. Auzani Bin Jidin 
FRGS / 2013 / FKE / TK02 / 02 / 1 / F00159 
Direct Torque Control (DTC) method has received enormous attention for highperformance torque control of induction motor due to its simplicity. Despite its simplicity, the DTC which is based on hysteresis controller has major drawbacks, namely variable inverter switching frequency and larger torque ripple. In addition, the DTC has a limitation in extending the limit of stator voltage at sixstep mode in order to improve dynamic performance and power output. This mainly due to the fact that the DTC algorithm has to give a priority in controlling the flux locus into a circular shape. The proposed research aims to formulate a new optimal switching strategy of DTC utilizing a 5level Cascaded Hbridge Multilevel Inverter (CHMI). Note that, the use of multilevel inverter in DTC can provide larger number of voltage vectors, hence giving more degrees of freedom in selecting the most optimal voltage vector for excellent torque control performance. To identify the most optimal voltage vector, the effects of DTC performances (e.g. torque ripple, torque dynamic and torque capability) will be investigated for different applications of voltage vectors and operating conditions. New equations to verify the identification of the most optimal vector will be derived using induction motor dynamic mathematical model. The switching of optimal voltage vectors can be established in the DTC algorithm by introducing a new model of lookup table and a block of ‘Optimum Status Detection’. Four improvements can be obtained using the proposed strategy, which are as follows; 1) torque ripple reduction, 2) highefficiency, 3) fast torque dynamic control, and 4) hightorque capability for widespeed range of operations. Note that, these improvements are the major requirements for high power applications such as electric vehicle and electric public transport. The benefit of the proposed strategy is its simplicity where the improvements can be obtained without major modifications on the original DTC algorithm. 

Experimental Set  up


Experiment Results


3 
Simple Neutral Potential Balancing and Optimal DTC Switching of 3  level Neutral  Point  Clamped Multilevel Inverter 
Nor Faezah Binti Alias 
Dr. Auzani Bin Jidin 
PJP / 2013 / FKE(2B) / S01132 
This research project proposes a simple and robust potential balancing strategy for Direct Torque Control (DTC) of induction machines. In the proposed method, a twolevel hysteresis comparator is used to restrict the error between the upper and lower capacitors voltage, within the hysteresis band. The comparator will produce appropriate digitized output status to be indexed into a lookup table for selecting suitable switching states to compensate the mismatch voltages. By doing so, the variation of two capacitors voltages can be controlled, consistently, as compared to that of using SVM where the variation (or error of ripple) is not strictly maintained. Some experimental results are given to highlight the improvements of DTC performances as well as the robustness of control balancing strategy for steady state and dynamic conditions. 

Fundamental Theory


Experiment Results


4 
Optimal torque control performance of DTC of 5  phase induction machines 
Logan Raj Lourdes Victor Raj 
Dr. Auzani Bin Jidin 
ERGS / 2012 / FKE / TK02 / 02 / 2 / E00010 
This research project improves the control of fivephase induction machine using appropriate switching vectors based on Direct Torque Control (DTC) technique. The general DQ model of fivephase induction machine is discussed. The decoupled control of stator flux and electromagnetic torque based on hysteresis controller similar to conventional DTC is applied to maintain the simplicity of the system. Three sets of lookup tables consist of voltage vectors with different amplitude that selects the most optimal voltage vectors according motor operation condition is proposed. This provides excellent torque dynamic control, reduces torque ripple, lower switching frequency (high efficiency) and extension of constant torque. Experimental results validate the improvement achieved. 

Fundamental Theory


Experimental Set  up


5 
Performance Analysis of Direct Torque Control of Induction Machines 
Raja Nor Azrin Bin Raja Yunus 
Dr. Auzani Bin Jidin 
PJP / 2011 / FKE(2C) / S00820 
This research project reports the study of effects of hysteresis controllers on performance of Direct Torque Control (DTC) of induction machines. By analyzing the DTC performances through simulations, it can provide useful information for the beginner researchers to identify the root of problems and hence chooses the appropriate hysteresis bandwidths for any operating conditions to achieve high DTC performances. It should be noted that the DTC drive has gained widely acceptance for many industrial applications due to its simplicity. However, the DTC which is based on hysteresis comparators has two major drawbacks, namely variable switching frequency and larger torque ripple. It can be shown that the DTC performance may deteriorate if the inappropriate flux and torque bandwidths are chosen. This research is aimed to analyze DTC performances in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD), torque ripple and switching frequency for variations of controller hysteresis bandwidths and operating conditions. The problems which are mainly associated in hysteresis controllers were identified by simulating the DTC of induction machine at different applications of hysteresis bandwidth, sampling frequency and operating conditions (e.g. different of load torque or speed levels). This study provides the consideration for the designer in choosing appropriate bandwidth to have high performance of DTC drives. 

Experiment Results


6 
Implementation of Direct Torque Control of Brushless DC Motor utilizing ds1104 controller board 
Ahmad Faiz Noor Azam 
Dr. Auzani Bin Jidin 
PJP / 2011 / FKE(2C) / S00820 
This thesis presents the implementation of Direct Torque Control of BLDC Motor (BLDC) drive using a dSPACE DSP DS1104. BLDC motor is wellknown and has been widely used in the industrial area due to its high speed and power density capabilities. Electronic commutation is by far more favourable compared to the conventional method, which uses brushes and commutators, that wear and tear by time. However, a precise controller is required in order to control the switches prior to commutation process. Over the past years, Direct Torque Control (DTC) method for induction motor drives received lots of attention from researchers, and motor drive industries. Its simple control structure uses a pair of hysteresis controller, torque and flux estimator, switching table and a 3phase voltage source inverter. In DTC, torque and flux are controlled independently to satisfy the demands using optimum voltage vectors. The conventional Field Oriented Control (FOC) drive controls the torque and flux from the current components which being produced, and more machine parameters and current regulated Pulse Width Modulation are required. DTC of BLDC combines a simple control method and a demanding motor to complete a better drives system. DTC method is known to have a simple structure without having complex calculations thus offers a fast response and a good dynamic performance. The drawbacks of the conventional DTC are having hightorque ripple and variable switching frequency. A mathematical modeling which is created using Matlab simulation on the motor drive for Brushless DC Motor is presented along with a complete model of the DTC system for BLDC motor with trapezoidal back EMF waveform using Simulink Block. The model is described briefly to give a better understanding on the whole system. FPGA is used to perform blanking time generation which the main priority in performing this task is to avoid short circuit within the legs of VSI and a blanking time about 5µs is implemented for each leg. The usage of dSPACE is fully utilized which is used to minimize the system sampling time up to 50µs. Finally, the simulation and experimental results are shown to validate the performance of DTC of BLDC motor. 

Experimental Set  up


Experiment Results


7 
Implementation of Space Vector Modulation of 5  level Cascaded H  Bridge Multilevel Inverters utilizing FPGA and DSP 
Syamim Binti Sanusi 
Dr. Auzani Bin Jidin 
PJP / 2012 / FKE(9C) / S01108 
A development in implementation of Space Vector Modulation technique of 5 level Cascaded HBridge Multilevel Inverter with approximately to the real time calculation. Space vector modulation is among popular scheme in PWM types of technique due to superior performance in reducing harmonic, increase voltage transfer ration and optimized switching frequency. However, when it involves with multilevel inverter, the implementation of SVM become complex and endow to the computerization burden. This project presents an efficient algorithm for the implementation using DSP and FPGA which provided fastcomputing with real time calculation. A special block to produce an accurate SPWM is introduced which it provided high frequency up to 5 MHz and also elimination of linearly losses. A comparison of performance between regular PWM technique and SVM with several number of inverter level being analyze with a same scaling of voltage vector due to prevent the discrimination of advantage to higher number of multilevel. The result is compared with simulation which provided an ideal real time calculation of sampling and also with theoretical calculation to prove the effectiveness of purpose technique. 

Fundamental Theory


Experimental Set  up


Experiment Results


8 
Constant Switching Frequency and Reduced Torque Ripple of Direct Torque Control of Brushless DC Motor 
Adeline Lukar Herlino 
Dr. Auzani Bin Jidin 
PJP / 2013 / FKE(22B) / S01241 
This research project proposes an optimal switching strategy to minimize torque ripple and constant switching frequency for Direct Torque Control of Brushless motor. In this proposed method, the torque hysteresis controller is replaced with a constant frequency torque controller. By doing so, the constant frequency torque controller consists of one triangular generator, comparators and a proportional integral (PI) controller. To establish a constant switching frequency, the frequency and peaktopeak triangular waveform has been given a fixed value. This is due to set up high triangular waveform frequency to minimize torque ripple. Proportional integral (PI) controller, the gain Kp and Ki values are limited to ensure the absolute slope of the output signal, Tc (The output of PI controller) does not exceed the absolute slope of the triangle waveform. This is to ensure proper operation of the control torque at a constant switching frequency and at the same time to avoid selecting the wrong voltage vector, for a variety of operating conditions. It can be shown that, the proposed method can minimize torque ripple and constant switching frequency. The improvements offered in the proposed method were verified through experimental results. 

Fundamental Theory


Experimental Set  up


Experiment Results


9 
Constant Switching Frequency and Reduced Torque Ripple of Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor using Carrier Based Modulation and Multilevel inverter 
Sundram a/l Ramahlingam 
Dr. Auzani Bin Jidin 
FRGS / 2013 / FKE / TK02 / 02 / 1 / F00159 
This paper presents the advantage of Torque Error Modulator (TFM) implementation in conventional Direct Torque Control (DTC) of 3 phase induction motor with 3level Cascade Hbridge Multilevel Inverter (CHMI). The DTC system is known to offer fast decoupled control of torque and flux via a simple control structure. Nevertheless, DTC system has two major drawbacks, which are the variable inverter switching frequency and high torque ripple. The major factor contributes to these problems the usage of hysteresis based comparators in controlling the output torque. The implementation of TFM in DTC able to solve these problems while retaining the simple control structure of conventional DTC. The combination usage of 3 level CHMI with TFM can further minimize the output torque ripple of 3 phase DTC system by providing greater number of vectors. The 3level CHMI of 3phase system provides 18 active voltage vectors where each vector may give different effect on controlling performance of 3phase induction machine in various torque demands. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method experimentation, the proposed method compared with convention DTC system via simulation and experiment results. 

Fundamental Theory


Experimental Set  up


Experiment Results


10 
HighEfficiency Dual Inverters based on Space Vector Modulation Technique for Open  End Winding Induction Motors 
Nur Hazwani Binti Mohd Fadzil 
Dr. Auzani Bin Jidin 
PJP / 2013 / FKE(22B) / S01241 
This research project proposes highefficiency dual inverters based on SVM technique for openend winding induction motor. The dual twolevel inverters were connected at either end of openend winding induction motor. The number of voltage vector similar to the 3level inverter. This method provides an advantage compared to the 3level inverter. To verify the proposed method, the proposed method will be compared with conventional 3level inverter using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the results are presented. 

Fundamental Theory


Experiment Results
